Posts Tagged ‘st wilfrid’

St Wilfrid’s Procession In Ripon (30 July 2011)

Thursday, August 11th, 2011

Today was the annual St Wilfrid Procession through Ripon.  This celebrates our city’s patron saint, St Wilfrid, who was one of the great northern saints and important people of early Northumbria.  He is very unlike the ascetic Irish (Celtic) saints that characterised the religious communities of Lindisfarne – St Aidan and St Cuthbert – preferring the lavish lifestyle of the Roman Catholic Church and brought the rule of Benedict to Northumbria and had a telling influence on the Synod of Whitby in 664, arguing for Rome over the Celtic tradition.

For Ripon, St Wilfrid provides a sense of pride, for here his relics are kept.  The procession is a fun day that allows the community an excuse to do some dressing up, drink a few pints and have a jolly church service later.  The Anglican and Roman Catholic churches join in the procession, but for most of us it is a few hours of fun during the gloom that is enveloping our world.  It reminds me that community is more important than anything else, and that our community is local not national, centred on Ripon, Harrogate and York, where the turbulence of the stockmarkets, bond markets and events in the big cities seem another world away, even if we will suffer the consequences of changes that these will all impose upon us.

Some photos will tell the story of the day (and there are more on my Flickr site):

St Wilfrid And The Wakeman Wait For The Horse

St Wilfrid And The Wakeman Wait For The Horse

Stars In Their Eyes - Red Triangle & Evolve

Stars In Their Eyes - Red Triangle & Evolve

Calendar Girls - Ripon Belles

Calendar Girls - Ripon Belles

Spare Tyres, It's The Pits! - Next Generation

Spare Tyres, It's The Pits! - Next Generation

Clown On Go Cart On North Street

Clown On Go Cart On North Street

A Sense Of Community

Monday, August 30th, 2010

On Saturday morning, I went to Havenhands the Bakers in St James’s Square in Boroughbridge*, then on to the Post Office before going to Ripon to watch the start of the Annual Raft Race in the Ripon Canal Basin.  On that short journey, I met several people who I knew really well in both personal and business life, and a few others who I knew well enough to pass the time with.

It made me realise why I enjoy living in the country, in a rural space, rather than in a town or city.  I love that sense of community that gently underpins life in our rural community-scape.  We know the current Mayors of Pateley Bridge and Ripon quite well, which sounds grand but it’s not especially so in our small community – this ain’t London or New York.  We know the family that runs Boroughbridge post office, many of the local postmen, the local courier drivers, a good proportion of the local policemen, the local vicars and Dean of Ripon and many of the local schoolteachers and so on and so on.  You soon realise how many people you know who create the fabric of our local community.   And we know many of the local business people well enough to have an idle natter with, and we do have those chats.

I like that, having been brought up in a rural Northumberland.  City life never fitted comfortably, and the money never got close to compensating for a loss of that fabric that can bind people together.  While some business gurus talk about the business environment giving that community spirit, it does not really work, as there is always a hint, an undercurrent, of tension and aggression; business does not forgive mistakes and transgressions, whereas real communities live with, forgive and forget, and perhaps are defined by their own sense of forgiveness and tolerance for day-to-day transgressions amongst their own.

I feel that the Internet can go some way to recreating that sense of community and rebuild a fabric for society and go some way to letting people have a sense of belonging to something, a community, and hopefully that is a civil and decent digital and online community.  Maybe the Internet and its web can bring people together in a way that Governments really have failed to do, in spite of the billions in cash spent and huge amount of brain cells and legislation proposed on areas such as social inclusion and redevelopment.  In the end, it is people and communities that matter not politicos with an agenda to grab power.

Recently, Ripon as a community celebrated its founder, St Wilfrid, with the exuberant St Wilfrid’s Parade, full of joy and singing and not a small amount of indulgence.   This weekend our real life community had fun with its Annual Raft Race held at Ripon Canal Basin, where teams competed on a course in a mobile swan and on home-made, but rather professional, rafts; then on Sunday, it was the turn of the duck race held by The Water Rat at Alma Weir in Ripon.  What is great is the huge amount of fun and joy that people have when taking part in these community events – just look at the smiles on peoples faces and in their eyes.

That’s community, that’s North Yorkshire.

Photos from St Wilfrid’s Parade 2010 (more at Facebook):

A Vampire Screams

A Vampire Screams

The Jolliest Zebra I've Ever Seen

The Jolliest Zebra I've Ever Seen

A Jolly Bee With A Lovely Smile

A Jolly Bee With A Lovely Smile

The Great And Good Of Ripon - The Wakeman, The Dean, The Mayor

The Great And Good Of Ripon - The Wakeman, The Dean, The Mayor

Photos from Great Raft Race 2010 (more photos on Facebook):

Mayor Of Ripon In A Swan

Mayor Of Ripon In A Swan

Happy Face

Happy Face

Pirate Boat

Pirate Boat

Pirates Rowing Hard

Pirates Rowing Hard

Getting Dunked...

Getting Dunked...

...And Splash

...And Splash

Photos from Great Duck Race 2010 (more photos on Facebook):

Helping The Ducks Over Alma Weir

Helping The Ducks Over Alma Weir

In The River Skell

In The River Skell

* I bought croissants, jam doughnuts, cinnamon Danish and a loaf of bread which Havenhands bake every day on site and the bakers still live above their bakery.  How about that – I bet you thought small village bakeries like that had died away and the only ones were the new wave of hip, ultra healthy microbakeries.

Water Walks In Ripon – A Walk Along Borrage Lane

Wednesday, May 19th, 2010

I have been spending a few minutes every day exploring the waterways of Ripon over the last month as part of some course work.  It has been really enlightening and an abject lesson in what you can miss on your doorstep when you keep your eyes closed and your nose to the grindstone of daily toil.

The first thing that happened was that it was plain and simply good fun – just the beauty and a sense of excitement as you found new things.  Secondly, Ripon really is a little gem of a city, forgotten and a bit tatty at the edges, but truly beautiful with countryside and farmland encroaching into the city.  It’s a green place, teeming with wildlife, and defined by its rivers.

Ripon is an old place.  It’s not Roman, but must have been inhabitated by local Britons before St Wilfrid rebuilt the monastery and cathedral of St Peter’s & St Wilfrid’s in the 7th century and that now defines and dominates the cityscape and skyline.  But it’s when you walk the rivers that you realise why Ripon was built where it is and why also it must have been inhabitated for many years prior to St Wilfrid.

There are three rivers that define Ripon – the River Laver, the River Skell and the River Ure (or in older times the River Yore which hints at its older pronunciation).  All the rivers have their sources in the Yorkshire Dales.  The Laver forms a border for Ripon on the west, meeting the Skell at the western edge of the old city and then the enlarged Skell flows through the centre of Ripon and where it used to form its southerly border.  The Skell then flows out of the old city and meets the Ure at its eastern edge, before the Ure flows past Hewick Bridge and off to Boroughbridge.  After a name change at Linton-on-Ouse, the Ure becomes the Ouse flowing through York, Selby and Goole before flowing into the Humber Estuary at Faxfleet and by England’s largest tidal reedbed – Blacktoft Sands.  The Ouse is the river of North Yorkshire and York is the second city of England.

So the three rivers create natural boundaries to the old city on the west, south and east.  Then you have the low lying hill by the Skell, where Ripon Cathedral now sits and would have allowed you to watch over the shallow valley in all directions.  The rivers are also flooding rivers and the area south of the Skell, where the canal and Dallamires Lane is located, would have been wet and boggy land, further protecting the city, while the surrounding land is good farmland that was mentioned in the Domesday Book.

So Ripon would just have seemed a great location to start a new settlement and I cannot believe that monks were the first people to notice this at the comparatively late date of 650AD.

Back to the walk, I started on Borrage Lane by Borrage Bridge and wandered along this small lane that has houses backing onto the River Skell and must regularly get flooded.  There’s a house here with a plaque stating that Wilfred Owen, the war poet, stayed here when recuperating in Ripon in March 1918 before going back to France and the trenches and death literally days before Armistice Day on 4 November 1918; how peaceful and idyllic Ripon must have seemed then and how dirty, noisy and cruel the war must have seemed as a distant memory only for him to have to return.  In his famous collection of “War Poems and others”, it states in the preface: “having much free time outside the camp, took a room in a cottage near the river where he could work in peace.  In this pleasant retreat, poems begun earlier were heavily revised and new pieces written.”  He decided to go back to the front when Siegfried Sassoon was injured with a head-wound and parting in September wrote presciently to his mother “When I go from hence let this be my parting word, that what I have seen is unsurpassable.”  Because of him, we should all have etched onto our hearts the last 4 lines of one of his greatest poems:

“My friend, you would not tell with such high zest
To children ardent for some desperate glory,
The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est
Pro patria mori.”…And yet we still go to war for glory!

At the top of Borrage Lane just before it curves northwards, I followed the path onto a green swathe that acts as a water meadow along the River Laver and wandered up to Laver Weir by Bishopton Bridge.  Here, I watched the water pouring over the weir – quite mesmerizing and peaceful. 

There used to be a dam here by the bridge called High Cleugh Dam, which diverted water along a Mill Race that went down the middle of Mallorie Park Drive, Skellbank and Low Skellgate all the way to a duck pond at the bottom of Duck Hill, before flowing back into the Skell by Bondgate Bridge.  A cleugh means a cleft with water running through it, which is exactly what this is!  There’s a memory of these mills outside the Hugh Ripley Hall where two millstones are placed in the steps up into this community hall; this was the site of the High Mill.  These mills declined after the High Cleugh Dam was destroyed in a flood in 1892 ending the flour mills of High Mill, Duck Hill Mill and Union Mill.  In fact prior to then even, Ripon used to be the centre for textiles of the north before Halifax took over in the sixteenth century and Ripon entered centuries of economic stasis.  Also, a bit further down river, there is more of the mill race on the north side of the Skell by Alma Weir, but more of that another day.

I pootled back down the River Laver to where it meets with the River Skell by Borrage Lane and wooden bridge that crosses over the enlarged Skell.  This is a great place to play pooh sticks, but today I was more intrigued by where some steps up a bank by the Skell would lead to and where the path on the south side of the Skell came out back in Ripon.  Anyway, the steps led to a field which takes you back to Whitcliffe Lane and the houses in that area plus Ripon Cathedral Choir School, while the path is a short walk back to Borrage Green Lane and a playground that was donated to the children of the city in 1930 by the widow of the last Williamson of the now converted varnish factory by Borrage Bridge in the centre of town. 

Meeting Of River Skell With River Laver In Ripon

Meeting Of River Skell With River Laver In Ripon

Wooden Bridge Over River Skell

Wooden Bridge Over River Skell

If you were to walk across the field and then along Whitcliffe Lane now (May 2010), you will firstly see Ripon Cathedral Choir School which provides the beautiful young male and female voices for the sadly, hardly supported singing within Ripon Cathedral; it’s such a waste of talent that no-one listens to Evensong every evening or the sung services in Ripon Cathedral as the talent is amazing for such a small area that is Ripon.  Also, you should have a nosey at the school’s main building as this was the former finishing post stand for Ripon Race Course for many years – it’s actually back to front, i.e. the front of the school is actually the back of the stand; this was Ripon Race Course’s second location, with the first by the Ure on the far side of North Bridge.  This year and further down Whitcliffe Lane, you will see a quaint ceremonial gas lamp outside one of the houses and this is where the current Mayor of Ripon lives and is inscribed with the words “The Right Worshipful Mayor of Ripon”, and moves around dependent on the current appointee.

It is amazing how green and interlocked with nature this part of Ripon is – farmland cuts behind Whitcliffe Lane and the Skell all the way up to the centre of the city by Borrage Bridge, while modern housing creeps ominously close but has not yet removed this belt of green.  Then on the south side of Borrage Lane you walk among trees and the appetising aroma of wild garlic – masses of wild garlic and other riverbank plants.  Ducks swim with their young broods of 4 or 5 ducklings, and the swallows dive and dance in the skies above the farmland.  Save for the constant drone of cars, buses and lorries in the background, you would never believe that you were literally just feet away from urban life – albeit rural city life.

South Bank Of River Skell Opposite Borrage Lane

South Bank Of River Skell Opposite Borrage Lane

Also, you can see why Borrage Lane floods regularly – its banks are lower than those on the south side by about 2 or 3 metres, while the riverbanks have suffered erosion, especially close to Borrage Bridge.  Also, like many rivers the Skell is deceptive – small, gentle flowing for most of the year, it will suddenly fill up as rainfall and snowmelt rush into it from the moorlands into the Laver, Kex Beck and Skell, all merging quickly and simultaneously in central Ripon to create a rapidly formed flood head that finds the lowest and weakest place to break the banks.  The first place to go for these flood waters to find some freedom is Borrage Lane. 

Gabions Provide Softer Riverbank Edges By Borrage Lane In Ripon

Gabions Provide Softer Riverbank Edges By Borrage Lane In Ripon

Most of the flood protection is home made concrete and solid walls, but nearer to Borrage Bridge gabions have been put in that create a softer edge to the riverbanks that also allows river life to flourish.

And there is loads of river life right here in the centre, and on the edge, of the city – wild garlic, ducks and ducklings, fish (like grayling, brown trout and salmon are slowly wending their way further up the tributaries of the Ouse), native crayfish, bats, skylarks, swallows and supposedly lampreys, water voles and sometimes otters.  This is a part of England that is coming back to life as the countryside is cleaned up and people stop exploiting and fighting with nature, and letting it co-exist with us, enriching our lives.

White House, Ducks And Riverbank From Borrage Bridge In Ripon

White House, Ducks And Riverbank From Borrage Bridge In Ripon

Enjoy your local history and culture – St Wilfrid’s day

Sunday, August 2nd, 2009

Yesterday (1 August) was Yorkshire Day and also the day of the St Wilfrid’s Day Pageant in Ripon.  

We have just come back from 2 weeks holiday in Dumfries & Galloway near Kirkcudbright.  It was our first full 2 weeks of holiday since we started Steenbergs back in 2003, so that’s some form of progress.  We did still get phone calls from work for help with a daily list of queries, but when we returned everything was in good order.

DSC_0146While we were there, we enjoyed visiting various ruined castles such as Caerlaverock Castle, MacLellan’s Castle and Threve Castle.  But what we really enjoyed was a number of events held in the centre of Kirkcudbright, where they have a series of Scottish events over 8 weeks called The Summer Festivities.  There we watched pipe bands – Kirkcudbright and District Pipe Band – and Highland Dancing as well as the Riding of the Marches, where 80 riders on horseback rode the boundaries of the original declaration of the Royal (Scottish Royal) Burgh from 1485 by King James II of Scotland.

Whenever we go on holiday, we always come back thinking how wonderful that place was, but everything that seems so great on holiday is also available back at home in Yorkshire, or wherever you live.  However, we never really find the time to go and see all the things on offer locally, or even anywhere near enough of what there is, whether it’s music, plays, historic monuments or just plain gorgeous countryside.

So Sophie and I have made a resolution that we will go out of our way over the next few years to be a bit of a grockle and visit all the local historic sites, learn something about our local history and enjoy some of the culture that is on offer.  Now, I know we don’t live in London, Edinburgh, Leeds, Paris or New York, but I am happy with our rougher, more rural history and culture, as it comes from the heart and soul of the local people.

And that’s important.  We are all taught national and international history.  We all read about national and international politics.  However, we relate in our day-to-day life on a much more personal level with our family, our neighbours, our work colleagues and other local people. 

National politics hardly even ripples the surface of our lives here and while many people may think how sad that it is for us I am very happy about that.  It is these smaller, closer and more local human connections that drive our lives, support us and keep us happy.

As a start, I enjoyed yesterday’s St Wilfrid’s Parade, which supposedly traces itself back to 1108 when King Henry I granted permission for a Feast of St Wilfrid.  St Wilfrid was one of the founders of modern English Christianity when he founded Ripon Cathedral, became Archbishop of York and persuaded the English Christians at the Synod of Whitby in 664 to switch from the Celtic tradition and move to the Roman Church.  St Wilfrid is our local Saint, coming originally from north Northumbria and being very connected with this area.  He is probably also buried in Ripon.

The pageant comprised about 20 different groups of people, ranging from 2 brass bands (1 at the beginning of the procession and 1 at the end), the Mayor in his chauffeur driven car, 2 Canons from the Cathedral, the Wakeman, a steel band, the ubiquitous group of Morris Dancers (about 30 of them), the Fire Service and floats and dancers with themes such as: “Money – the Root of All Evil” dancing to Abba’s “Money, Money, Money”; Bollywood; Willy Wonker’s Chocolate Factory; Joseph and the Technicolour Dreamcoat;  Dad’s Army and WW2 for Help for Heroes; puppets, St Wilfrid and his travels; and Party Time from the team at Wolseley Centers.

DSC_0198Snuck somewhere towards the front was the star attraction of the pageant – St Wilfrid in his finery coming back into his City seated on his horse accompanied by his faithful 5 monks.

The Pageant started at 2pm prompt in the Market Place, processing down North Street and then back up Magdalens Road, up All Hallowgate etc until reaching back to the Minster for a service at about 4pm. 

It was all done in great spirit and with a great deal of enthusiasm and fun.  I know it’s not the Notting Hill Carnival, but it is good, honest, local fun.

Every 20-25 minutes the procession needed to stop for some liquid sustenance.  So after a 10 minute pub break that stretched to 20 minutes, the Pageant would move on, getting a little bit more ragged at the edges after every stop.  Supposedly there used to be superstition (of course no longer) that it was unlucky for St Wilfrid to pass a pub without a drink!

Although it may seem that the only piece of religion is the fact that the Pageant needed religiously to stop and have a pint every 20-25 minutes, it seems important to link us today all the way back to the founding of the City by St Wilfrid when he completed building the original church of St Peter in 672.  He links us back to Lindisfarne, St Aidan and later St Cuthbert, whose body rested here for a few years before ending at a hastily built church at Durham.

My final thoughts are for my 2 main memories of the pageant other than it’s sheer glorious fun:

  1. DSC_0207A huge bouquet of a headdress on one of the male Morris Dancers;
  2. The sight of St Wilfrid and his faithful monks enjoying a hasty pint of bitter under a tree across the road from The Magdalens pub.  St Wilfrid was there with his mitre off and his false beard pushed down around his neck enjoying a quickly smoked tab, with a pint in his other hand. 

But wasn’t it was ever thus on high days and holy days. 

Anyway God must have been looking on with a wry smile and been happy with the expression of faith from the Ripon populace, as the rain stopped just before the show (after days and days of raining) and it has turned into a glorious Sunday.

Go on: go and explore your local area, revel in your local culture and enjoy being English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish.  We have great history and culture, but we seem almost to be embarrassed about it all. 

Don’t be, be proud as there is lots to be proud of, and don’t always worry about offence and don’t focus always on those things that are bad in our history – every country has blemishes. 

In fact, every person has really embarrassing moments in our lives and we should just say “sorry” and move on and look to the good in us all.

Some facts about Ripon

Saturday, July 18th, 2009

 

A potted history if Ripon

 

The church at Ripon was originally established by Eata, Abbott of Melrose.  Eata is maybe best known as the original mentor of St Cuthbert, who came to his monastery in 651 after having a divine vision while shepherding his flock of sheep.  Intriguingly, Eata asked St Cuthbert to come with him to help with the new monastery that was being built at Ripon, but St Cuthbert did not like Ripon and sneaked back to Melrose as fast as he could.  Eata and Cuthbert later left Melrose and went to Lindisfarne.

 

In 661, St Wilfrid started rebuilding an Abbey in Ripon called St Peter’s, which was completed in 672.  He was 27 and hired craftsmen from France to undertake the stonemasonry.  In 664, St Wilfrid sat as an expert at the Synod of Whitby where he championed the cause of Rome over the indigenous Celtic Christian Church;  Rome came out on top at the Treaty of Whitby.  In 665, he became Bishop of York.  He died in Oundle but was buried at Ripon where he is the Patron Saint of the City.

 

In 715, the city was called Hrypis which translates as “place of the tribe called Hrype”.

 

In 886, King Alfred the Great supposedly gave Ripon its original Royal Charter.

 

In 924, King Athelstan granted the Church of Ripon the privilege of sanctuary, which extended a mile on either side the Church. These boundaries remain in the names of Kangel Cross, Sharow Cross and Athelstan Cross.   

 

In 950, this town and monastery were burnt by the Danes. Ripon monastery was rebuilt by Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury. Ripon itself was soon also rebuilt and began to flourish.

 

In 1069, Ripon suffered like the rest of the North during the “Harrying of the North” when King William I went through the North of England aggressively asserting his Rule.  In 1086, Ripum (or Ripon) was written about in the Domesday Book as follows:

 

“In the liberty of Ripon, there may be 10 ploughs – Eldred, Archibishop, held this manor – Thomas, Archbishop, now has in this demesne 2 ploughs and 1 mill of 10 shillings, and one fishery of 3 shillings and eights villeins, and 10 bordars, having 6 plough-meadows and 10 acres of coppice wood.”

 

In 1640, King Charles I signed the Treaty of Ripon with the Scottish Covenanters after the Second Bishops’ War.  The Covenanters wanted to replace religious rule by Bishops in Scotland with Presbyterianism, based on Rule by Church Courts; they were formed after Charles I introduced an Anglican-style Prayer Book into the Scottish Churches which upset the Scottish nobles and the Scottish people.  This led to the First Bishops’ War that ended with the Treaty of Berwick.  One consequence of the Treaty of Berwick was that a session was held in the Edinburgh Assembly which stated that Bishops could not hold political office as this was against the law of God and which in effect meant that absolute Royal power in Scotland was over.  This position was untenable for Charles I and so he prepared himself to wage a second war against the Covenanters or Scotland, but he was thrashed before he could start.  The Scots launched a pre-emptive strike occupying Northumberland and Newcastle.  The situation was resolved at the Treaty of Ripon, which was a truly humiliating setback for King Charles I that required him to cede Northumberland (including Newcastle) and County Durham to the Scots for a period and to pay them £850 to station their armies there.  The Treaty also required the holding of a session of Parliament, which became known as the Long Parliament, and was a precursor to the English Civil War.

 

In 1836, Ripon Minster became Ripon Cathedral and the seat of the Bishop of Ripon and Leeds.

 

In 2008, the traditional Ripon Pancake Race was ended because of Health & Safety concerns.  However, in 2009, the Ripon Pancake Race was reinstated. 

 

Other Ripons

 

Ripon Falls is the original source of the River Nile, being one of the natural outlets of Lake Victoria; it’s in Uganda.  It was “discovered” in 1862 by John Hanning Speke who named it after George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (see below).  The construction of the Owen Falls Dam (now called Nulabaale Power Station) in 1954 resulted in Lake Victoria being artificially extended and the submerging of Ripon Falls, so this important geographical feature is no more.

 

In India, there are at least 3 places named after George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon, who was Viceroy of India (see below for more on Lord Ripon):

  1. Riponpet is a village in the Shimoga District of Karnataka in land from the sea; it is about 34 kilometres west of Shimoga and 10km south of Anandapuram. 
  2. The town of Ripon is in the Wayanad Plateau of Northern Kerala in Southern India.  Ripon has a wonderful tea plantation called the Ripon Tea Estate which produces a good Nilgiri Tea, as well as selling a bagged black tea into the local Indian market called Ripon Tea.
  3. The seat of the Chennai Corporation (originally Municipal Corporation of Madras) is called the Ripon Building.  It was built in 1909 – 1913 following the Indo-Saracenic design of Loganatha Mudaliar.  Lord Ripon is a popular Governor-General of British Inida as he is viewed as the Father of Indian Self-Government.

 

Ripon is a town in the Font du Lac County of Wisconsin in the United States of America.  It was founded in 1849 by a New York steamboat captain, David P. Mates.  Ripon has a population of 6,828.  Ripon is considered on of the birthplaces of the Republican Party in the USA – on 28 February 1854, 30 opponents of the Nebraska Act met in a schoolhouse in Ripon and decided to found a new political party, which they suggested should be called the Republican Party.  The Republican Party was centred on the concept of no further compromise with slavery whereas traditional conservatives were happy to enter into a comporomise with the Southern States.  These radicals was instrumental in creating the Republican Party across the northern states during the summer of 1854 with the first official meeting of the Republican Party taking place in Jackson, Michigan.  There is Republican think tank called the Ripon Society.

 

Ripon in the San Jaoquin County of California was originally called Murphy’s Ferry and is named after Ripon in Wisconsin, USA.  It has a population of 10,146 and is primarily agricultural and well known for its almonds.

 

Ripon is a rural electoral district within Western Victoria in Australia of 12,020 square kilometres and 49,928 people.   Towns include Ararat, Maryborough, Skipton and Stawell.  Ripon District is a centre of agriculture, wine making, timber industries, manufacturing, wool production, paper milling, knitting mills and tourism.