06 October 2011
Blending Breakfast Teas (1)
I have been doing some research while trying to create a range of Breakfast Tea blends to complement our very popular English Breakfast Tea. This has partly been a matter of curiosity as I like, in a slightly anoraky way, reading old books on tea, so have acquired small pamphlets on tea and tea blending from the Victorian period through to the mid 1930s. What they give is a window into a completely different world, plus it makes me realise how much more interesting people's palates must have been in olden times. Also, it raises some historical anachronisms that I have sought to address in my range of retro tea blends.
The first thing is that tea blends contained a complex mix of flavours in everyday teas that mingled the simpler black teas with scented teas like lapsang souchong, jasmine green tea and osmanthus or gardenia oolongs in your everyday teas. So tea must have been really quite exotic and not the strong malty, astringent black tea flavours that I had always imagined were being drunk. Prior to then in the Regency times and before, teas were more likely single teas or simple mixes with more green teas and oolongs were being taken; smoky lapsang souchongs were perhaps the most popular teas in olden times, with it being written in the 1894 that "the old fashioned lapseng [sic] souchongs are also shipped from Foo Chow [Fuzhuo today], and the finer grades keep up the old characteristics and give us an idea of the sort of tea prized by our grandfathers; they still find their way into some of the best of the blends going into consumption." Lapsang souchong was still popular in the finer blends in the 1930s, but by the post WW2 period these type of blends appear to have fallen out of popularity. Where general mixes are mentioned earlier, papers from the East India Company in 1730 suggest "if you mix Pekoe and Congo [sic], you shall have an admirable tea; you have all the goodness of the last in the first two waters, and of the first in the last two or three, but even then the water should not stand long."
Secondly, the anachronism is that I often read something that goes along the lines of "research shows that Keemum was the original English Breakfast tea from the 1800s", as suggested for example by Harney & Sons in the USA and Wilkinsons of Norwich. However, in the 1800s, the Keemun region only made green teas and not black tea, so Keemum could not have been the basis for English Breakfast tea. By 1883, Keemun is being suggested as a "one of the newest tea descriptions of China tea", by which time Indian teas were already being grown and imported in quantity and forming around 50% of each tea blends. Further, while we now would choose a Keemun over a Kintuck in the the 19th century and early 20th century, Kintuck was rated more highly than Keemun - tastes change, we all change. Then by 1894, tea blends were pretty much using only Indian teas. Prior to the late Victorian period, the core of blends was black teas, or Monings, like Ning Chows and Oonfas mixed together with red teas, Kaisows, like Ching Wos and Tseu Moos. In fact, a blend of black and red teas still formed the basis for many blends in the 1930s, with Keemuns joining Kintucks as the Moning teas of choice, with Ching Wo and Panyong teas being the popular Kaisows. I don't disagree that the original breakfast teas would probably have been made with China teas as Indian teas only started being produced in sensible quantities during the 1870s, growing from 6,750 tons in 1870 (10% of UK consumption) to 22,000 tons by 1880 (22% of UK consumption), however there was a switch from tea being a posh items to being everyday as pricing came down and perhaps sociologically as tea became a drink of men and women and not just the ladies - a polite way of saying men reduced their intake of booze as livelihoods became more industrial and less agricultural or artisanal. Notice also that black teas and red teas were actually different categories of teas that have become merged into one by the 21st century - perhaps as we have become less discerning about the subtle differences between the various regional teas within China.
As you can see, there was a mindblowing array of different names given for teas with different names given to China and Indian tea grades. Also, names change, so originally all black tea was called Bohea, then it became the lowest grade of black tea, before being more correctly attributed nowadays to lightly fermented oolongs. Even more confusingly, Bohea is an anglicisation of Wu-I, which is a mountainous area of Fukien, from where China oolongs originally came from, i.e those that were lightly and up to 60% fermented. Finally, teas were often sold as different things to they were and some were adulterated, for example, the leaf of [Canton Scented Capers] was "faced with soapstone, &c" and other books suggested these were "highly faced with gypsum, Prussian blue, magnesia, and other colouring matters." So getting down to what people actually blended together is fraught with difficulties.
Blending began in earnest when the Indian and Sri Lankan teas began arriving into the UK. This was in part for pricing reasons, i.e. trying to make a decent, consistent blend from as cost-effective ingredients as possible, and the fact that the new teas from India especially were much more astringent and strong than the flavours that consumers were used to, so you needed to use Indian teas for bulk and strength and China teas to smooth out the flavour edges and add some character. Therefore in 1883, it was written "the greater proportions of the English people like in every blend at least half China tea. The reason is that most Indian teas have a sharp acrid taste, not to be found in the teas of China. This acrid taste tea-drinkers rarely like, unless it is tempered by the softer milder flavours of some China varieties." However, by the 1930s, most tea blends were cheaper mixes with Ceylon, Indian and Indonesian teas making the blends. In the post war period, especially, African teas took over from Indian teas, however the balance has shifted back towards India with many of the UK household brand names now owned by Indian tea groups, e.g. Tata Tea owns Tetley Tea and Typhoo belongs to Apeejay Surrendra Group.
Actually, I think tea blends and the growth in tea had more to do with class than anything else. Prior to the late Victorian times, tea was a luxury item and its growth was defined by snobbery and the fact that it was expensive - as taxes on tea increased it only served to drive up sales further. Blends were expensive and tea was a posh item for the afternoon for those with time to spare. However, as wealth became less concentrated in the upper classes and so tea became more available with increased supplies arriving from India and Sri Lanka, tea became more of a general household item, hence blenders needed to create cheaper, more consistent brews for sale through the general tea shops set up by Lyons and later multiple grocers such as Sainsbury and Tesco, which had begun by selling tea in 1919.
However, tastes change and people become accustomed to different flavours. Old tea blends would have been smokier in flavour and lighter in colour and taste than modern blends, as Kintucks and Lapsang Souchong have a strong smokiness, whereas Ching Wo and Keemun are much lighter but still have that hint of smoke; this comes from the process of making Chinese black and red teas which includes a roasting stage. Then nowadays, we find that some tea blenders of fine teas actually blend in these bitter flavours either by using particular Assam teas as in Ringtons' 1907 Blend and English Breakfast tea or by adding green teas as in Dallmayr's and Eilles' English Breakfast Teas. or Fauchon's Siva Afternoon Tea dating back to the 1910. All of these could do with milk and sugar, which perhaps reflects how classic English Breakfast teas were originally drunk, i.e. strong, with milk and sugar, in the early 20th century. However, at Steenbergs, we like our tea to be smooth and capable of drinking without milk or lemon when brewed lightly or with milk if you want to take it strong, except for the very strong brews like an Irish Breakfast tea.